Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      Anatomy
      Bacterial diseases
      Biology and life sciences
      Body fluids
      Diagnostic medicine
      Engineering and technology
      Government laboratories
      Industrial engineering
      Infectious diseases
      Medicine and health sciences
      Mucus
      Negative staining
      Physiology
      Public and occupational health
      Quality assurance
      Quality control
      Research and analysis methods
      Research Article
      Research facilities
      Research laboratories
      Specimen preparation and treatment
      Sputum
      Staining
      Systems engineering
      Tropical diseases
      Tuberculosis
      Tuberculosis diagnosis and management
    • Abstract:
      Objectives: Quality of tuberculosis (TB) microscopy diagnosis is not a guarantee despite implementation of External Quality Assurance (EQA) service in all laboratories of health facilities. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the technical quality and the findings of sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) at health centers in Hararge Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between July 8, 2014 and July 7, 2015.A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method was put into practice for collecting all necessary sample slides. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20 software. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of the total55 health center laboratories which had been assessed during the study period, 20 (36.4%) had major technical errors; 13 (23.6%) had 15 false negative results and 17 (30.9%) had 22 false positive results. Moreover, poor specimen quality, smear size, smear thickness, staining and evenness were indicated in 40 (72.7%), 39 (70.9%), 37 (67.3%), 27(49.1%) and 37 (67.3%) of the collected samples, respectively. False negative AFB findings were significantly associated with lack of Internal Quality Control (IQC) measures (AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio): 2.90 (95% CI (Confidence Interval): 1.25,6.75) and poor staining procedures (AOR: 2.16(95% CI: 1.01, 5.11). Conclusions: The qualities of AFB smear microscopy reading and smearing were low in most of the laboratories of the health centers. Therefore, it is essential to strength EQA program through building the capacity of laboratory professionals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1Management Science for Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      2West HarargheZonal Health Department, TB and HIV Case Team, Chiro, Ethiopia
      3College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      4Department of Animal Health and Zoonoses, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      5Department of Medical Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, Addis Ababa University, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      6Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    • Full Text Word Count:
      4979
    • ISSN:
      1932-6203
    • Accession Number:
      10.1371/journal.pone.0198947
    • Accession Number:
      130265112
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      MEKONEN, A. et al. Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective. PLoS ONE, [s. l.], v. 13, n. 6, p. 1–12, 2018. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 21 out. 2019.
    • AMA:
      Mekonen A, Ayele Y, Berhan Y, Woldeyohannes D, Erku W, Sisay S. Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(6):1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198947.
    • APA:
      Mekonen, A., Ayele, Y., Berhan, Y., Woldeyohannes, D., Erku, W., & Sisay, S. (2018). Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective. PLoS ONE, 13(6), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198947
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Mekonen, Ayehu, Yeshi Ayele, Yifru Berhan, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Woldaregay Erku, and Solomon Sisay. 2018. “Factors Which Contributed for Low Quality Sputum Smears for the Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) at Selected Health Centers in Ethiopia: A Quality Control Perspective.” PLoS ONE 13 (6): 1–12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198947.
    • Harvard:
      Mekonen, A. et al. (2018) ‘Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective’, PLoS ONE, 13(6), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198947.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Mekonen, A, Ayele, Y, Berhan, Y, Woldeyohannes, D, Erku, W & Sisay, S 2018, ‘Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective’, PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1–12, viewed 21 October 2019, .
    • MLA:
      Mekonen, Ayehu, et al. “Factors Which Contributed for Low Quality Sputum Smears for the Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) at Selected Health Centers in Ethiopia: A Quality Control Perspective.” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 6, June 2018, pp. 1–12. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198947.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Mekonen, Ayehu, Yeshi Ayele, Yifru Berhan, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Woldaregay Erku, and Solomon Sisay. “Factors Which Contributed for Low Quality Sputum Smears for the Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) at Selected Health Centers in Ethiopia: A Quality Control Perspective.” PLoS ONE 13, no. 6 (June 20, 2018): 1–12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198947.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Mekonen A, Ayele Y, Berhan Y, Woldeyohannes D, Erku W, Sisay S. Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2018 Jun 20 [cited 2019 Oct 21];13(6):1–12. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=asn&AN=130265112&custid=s8280428