Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors.

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  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      Antimicrobial susceptibility
      Bacteria
      Eastern Ethiopia
      Health care professional
      Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital
      Mobile phone
    • NAICS/Industry Codes:
      443142 Electronics Stores
      417320 Electronic components, navigational and communications equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers
      334220 Radio and Television Broadcasting and Wireless Communications Equipment Manufacturing
      517210 Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)
    • Abstract:
      Background: Mobile phones of health care professionals could harbor microbes which cause nosocomial infections to the patient, family members, and the community at large. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination of the mobile phones of health professionals, identify bacterial isolates, assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and define the associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2018 on 226 health professionals' mobile phones which were selected by a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A swab sample from each of health professional's mobile phone device was collected and transported to the microbiology laboratory for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 20. Result: The overall prevalence of mobile phone contamination with one or more bacteria was 94.2%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 58.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.4%), and Klebsiella species (6.9%) were the most predominant bacterial isolates. The overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria was 69.9%. About half of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Male sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 15.8) and the absence of regular phone cleaning/disinfecting were found to be the most significant factors (AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2, 13.5) associated with health care professionals' mobile phone bacterial contamination. Conclusion: There is a high contamination rate of mobile phones with nosocomial pathogens. Most of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and also multidrug-resistant. A mobile phone belonging to male health professionals and to those not disinfecting mobile phones was significantly contaminated with bacteria. Therefore, strategies for preventing nosocomial transmission of drug-resistant pathogens through mobile phones, like hand washing and cleaning mobile phones, are recommended. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. box 235, Harar, Ethiopia
      2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. box 235, Harar, Ethiopia
      3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. box 235, Harar, Ethiopia
    • Full Text Word Count:
      5901
    • ISSN:
      1348-8945
    • Accession Number:
      10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y
    • Accession Number:
      134956014
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      BODENA, D. et al. Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors. Tropical Medicine & Health, [s. l.], v. 47, n. 1, p. N.PAG, 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 19 out. 2019.
    • AMA:
      Bodena D, Teklemariam Z, Balakrishnan S, Tesfa T. Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors. Tropical Medicine & Health. 2019;47(1):N.PAG. doi:10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y.
    • APA:
      Bodena, D., Teklemariam, Z., Balakrishnan, S., & Tesfa, T. (2019). Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors. Tropical Medicine & Health, 47(1), N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Bodena, Dagne, Zelelam Teklemariam, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, and Tewodros Tesfa. 2019. “Bacterial Contamination of Mobile Phones of Health Professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Associated Factors.” Tropical Medicine & Health 47 (1): N.PAG. doi:10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y.
    • Harvard:
      Bodena, D. et al. (2019) ‘Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors’, Tropical Medicine & Health, 47(1), p. N.PAG. doi: 10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Bodena, D, Teklemariam, Z, Balakrishnan, S & Tesfa, T 2019, ‘Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors’, Tropical Medicine & Health, vol. 47, no. 1, p. N.PAG, viewed 19 October 2019, .
    • MLA:
      Bodena, Dagne, et al. “Bacterial Contamination of Mobile Phones of Health Professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Associated Factors.” Tropical Medicine & Health, vol. 47, no. 1, Feb. 2019, p. N.PAG. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Bodena, Dagne, Zelelam Teklemariam, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, and Tewodros Tesfa. “Bacterial Contamination of Mobile Phones of Health Professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Associated Factors.” Tropical Medicine & Health 47, no. 1 (February 27, 2019): N.PAG. doi:10.1186/s41182-019-0144-y.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Bodena D, Teklemariam Z, Balakrishnan S, Tesfa T. Bacterial contamination of mobile phones of health professionals in Eastern Ethiopia: antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors. Tropical Medicine & Health [Internet]. 2019 Feb 27 [cited 2019 Oct 19];47(1):N.PAG. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=asn&AN=134956014&custid=s8280428