Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America.

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  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      Amniotes
      Animal behavior
      Animal sociality
      Animals
      Behavior
      Biology and life sciences
      Birds
      Chile (country)
      Earth sciences
      Eukaryota
      Evolutionary biology
      Gene flow
      Genetic mapping
      Genetics
      Geographical locations
      Geomorphology
      Haplotypes
      Heredity
      Islands
      Landforms
      Organisms
      Penguins
      People and places
      Population biology
      Population genetics
      Psychology
      Research Article
      Seabirds
      Social sciences
      South America
      Topography
      Vertebrates
      Zoology
    • Abstract:
      The upwelling hypothesis has been proposed to explain reduced or lack of population structure in seabird species specialized in food resources available at cold-water upwellings. However, population genetic structure may be challenging to detect in species with large population sizes, since variation in allele frequencies are more robust under genetic drift. High gene flow among populations, that can be constant or pulses of migration in a short period, may also decrease power of algorithms to detect genetic structure. Penguin species usually have large population sizes, high migratory ability but philopatric behavior, and recent investigations debate the existence of subtle population structure for some species not detected before. Previous study on Humboldt penguins found lack of population genetic structure for colonies of Punta San Juan and from South Chile. Here, we used mtDNA and nuclear markers (10 microsatellites and RAG1 intron) to evaluate population structure for 11 main breeding colonies of Humboldt penguins, covering the whole spatial distribution of this species. Although mtDNA failed to detect population structure, microsatellite loci and nuclear intron detected population structure along its latitudinal distribution. Microsatellite showed significant Rst values between most of pairwise locations (44 of 56 locations, Rst = 0.003 to 0.081) and 86% of individuals were assigned to their sampled colony, suggesting philopatry. STRUCTURE detected three main genetic clusters according to geographical locations: i) Peru; ii) North of Chile; and iii) Central-South of Chile. The Humboldt penguin shows signal population expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), suggesting that the genetic structure of the species is a result of population dynamics and foraging colder water upwelling that favor gene flow and phylopatric rate. Our findings thus highlight that variable markers and wide sampling along the species distribution are crucial to better understand genetic population structure in animals with high dispersal ability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1PPG Biologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
      2Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de São Paulo (IB-USP), São Paulo, Brazil
      3Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
      4Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil
      5Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Santiago, Chile
      6Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Chillán, Chile
      7Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
      8Université de Strasbourg, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Strasbourg, France
      9Département de Biologie PolaireCentre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM), Principality of Monaco, Monaco
      10Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral y Sostenible (CIDIS) and Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú
      11Programa Punta San Juan (CSA-UPCH), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú
      12Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    • ISSN:
      1932-6203
    • Accession Number:
      10.1371/journal.pone.0215293
    • Accession Number:
      136395766
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      DANTAS, G. P. M. et al. Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America. PLoS ONE, [s. l.], v. 14, n. 5, p. 1–19, 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 22 out. 2019.
    • AMA:
      Dantas GPM, Oliveira LR, Santos AM, et al. Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(5):1-19. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215293.
    • APA:
      Dantas, G. P. M., Oliveira, L. R., Santos, A. M., Flores, M. D., Melo, D. R. de, Simeone, A., … Vianna, J. A. (2019). Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America. PLoS ONE, 14(5), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215293
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Dantas, Gisele P. M., Larissa R. Oliveira, Amanda M. Santos, Mariana D. Flores, Daniella R. de Melo, Alejandro Simeone, Daniel González-Acuña, et al. 2019. “Uncovering Population Structure in the Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus Humboldti) along the Pacific Coast at South America.” PLoS ONE 14 (5): 1–19. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215293.
    • Harvard:
      Dantas, G. P. M. et al. (2019) ‘Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America’, PLoS ONE, 14(5), pp. 1–19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215293.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Dantas, GPM, Oliveira, LR, Santos, AM, Flores, MD, Melo, DR de, Simeone, A, González-Acuña, D, Luna-Jorquera, G, Le Bohec, C, Valdés-Velásquez, A, Cardeña, M, Morgante, JS & Vianna, JA 2019, ‘Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America’, PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1–19, viewed 22 October 2019, .
    • MLA:
      Dantas, Gisele P. M., et al. “Uncovering Population Structure in the Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus Humboldti) along the Pacific Coast at South America.” PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 5, May 2019, pp. 1–19. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215293.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Dantas, Gisele P. M., Larissa R. Oliveira, Amanda M. Santos, Mariana D. Flores, Daniella R. de Melo, Alejandro Simeone, Daniel González-Acuña, et al. “Uncovering Population Structure in the Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus Humboldti) along the Pacific Coast at South America.” PLoS ONE 14, no. 5 (May 10, 2019): 1–19. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215293.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Dantas GPM, Oliveira LR, Santos AM, Flores MD, Melo DR de, Simeone A, et al. Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2019 May 10 [cited 2019 Oct 22];14(5):1–19. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=asn&AN=136395766&custid=s8280428