Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences.

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  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      Africa
      Economic analysis
      Economic impact analysis
      Economics
      Engineering and technology
      Equipment
      Finance
      Geographical locations
      Government funding of science
      People and places
      Research and analysis methods
      Research Article
      Research design
      Research funding
      Research grants
      Science policy
      Social sciences
      Sudan
      Survey research
      Surveys
    • NAICS/Industry Codes:
      923110 Administration of Education Programs
      611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
      611710 Educational Support Services
    • Abstract:
      Financial sanctions are often thought of as the “soft alternative” to armed conflict and are widely used in the 21st century. Nonetheless, sanctions are often criticized for being non-specific in their action, and having impact beyond their intended remit. One often-overlooked area affected by sanctions are academic systems of research and education. Sanctions place “invisible barriers” for research in these countries by limiting access to necessary resources and curtailing their effective use. In this paper we present a national survey of Sudanese academics focused on the impact of 20 years of economic sanctions on their work. It identifies key areas of academic research and education that have been impacted by international sanctions. Moreover, these data highlight how the impact of sanctions on academia is likely to persist long after they are formally lifted. The paper concludes by problematising the current interpretation of jus post bellum, or moral behaviour after conflict. It suggests that the responsibility to make reparations in the form of support for academic systems applies to countries who impose economic sanctions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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    • Author Affiliations:
      1Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
      2Department of Statistics, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
      3INASP, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • Full Text Word Count:
      9799
    • ISSN:
      1932-6203
    • Accession Number:
      10.1371/journal.pone.0222669
    • Accession Number:
      138902347
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      BEZUIDENHOUT, L. et al. Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences. PLoS ONE, [s. l.], v. 14, n. 10, p. 1–24, 2019. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 18 nov. 2019.
    • AMA:
      Bezuidenhout L, Karrar O, Lezaun J, Nobes A. Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(10):1-24. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222669.
    • APA:
      Bezuidenhout, L., Karrar, O., Lezaun, J., & Nobes, A. (2019). Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences. PLoS ONE, 14(10), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222669
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Bezuidenhout, Louise, Ola Karrar, Javier Lezaun, and Andy Nobes. 2019. “Economic Sanctions and Academia: Overlooked Impact and Long-Term Consequences.” PLoS ONE 14 (10): 1–24. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222669.
    • Harvard:
      Bezuidenhout, L. et al. (2019) ‘Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences’, PLoS ONE, 14(10), pp. 1–24. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222669.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Bezuidenhout, L, Karrar, O, Lezaun, J & Nobes, A 2019, ‘Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences’, PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1–24, viewed 18 November 2019, .
    • MLA:
      Bezuidenhout, Louise, et al. “Economic Sanctions and Academia: Overlooked Impact and Long-Term Consequences.” PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 10, Oct. 2019, pp. 1–24. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222669.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Bezuidenhout, Louise, Ola Karrar, Javier Lezaun, and Andy Nobes. “Economic Sanctions and Academia: Overlooked Impact and Long-Term Consequences.” PLoS ONE 14, no. 10 (October 2019): 1–24. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222669.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Bezuidenhout L, Karrar O, Lezaun J, Nobes A. Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2019 Oct [cited 2019 Nov 18];14(10):1–24. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=asn&AN=138902347&custid=s8280428