Sustainable and carbon management practices are becoming prominent considerations in international business, particularly in developing economies that are still forming their economic foundations. Saudi Arabia is one such an economy and is pivotal because of its key position in international petroleum production. This study analysed secondary and primary data pertaining to sustainability and carbon management practices in Saudi Arabia and its business enterprises. A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 150 Saudi Arabian middle-managers. Surveyed Saudi enterprise managers reported a desire to see the Saudi government take an active role and establish well-defined carbon management policies in the country. The Saudi Arabian government has been serious in tackling the environmental problems, but the current governmental position is based on a distributive justice philosophy and pursuit of national interest. Primary data revealed private sector enterprises were better prepared to deal with sustainability and carbon management problems compared to public sector enterprises. Surveyed Saudi mangers reported hope that their employers would start rewarding positive carbon management actions and focus on educating managers about carbon management practices. Findings from this study can assist Saudi Arabian policy makers and leadership of public and private sector enterprises to formulate future sustainability and carbon management policies.