Douphrate, David I.; Stallones, Lorann; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Pinzke, Stefan; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Lundqvist, Peter; Jakob, Martina; Xiang, Huiyun; Xue, Ling; Jarvie, Paul; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Reed, Sue; Lower, TonyAbstract:
Agriculture is among the most hazardous sectors for workers globally, and dairy farming has been associated with a high risk of injury among workers in several countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on what is known about modern dairy farms and related injuries and fatalities in different regions of the world. As in other sectors of agriculture, fatalities appear to be associated with heavy equipment usage, whereas injuries occur at higher rates with animal production, specifically cattle and milk production. Dairy farming is associated with higher rates of injury as compared with other industrial sectors, but a lack of work-related injury reporting continues to be an issue in several countries. Worker fatality associated with heavy equipment use is not a new observation (e.g., tractors); however, manure-handling systems, livestock handling, and quad bike operation continue to be associated with worker injuries and fatalities on modern farms. Opportunities exist for improvement of safety-related equipment to reduce injury and fatality risk during worker interactions with large animals and farm equipment.