Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy studies of defects in lead glasses

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      EDP Sciences, 2008.
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    • Abstract:
      Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and windowless EDS (WEDS) of typical defects in lead glasses are presented. The micrographs, obtained mainly by means of a high efficiency backscattered electron (BSE) detector, showed the presence of cords of varying shape, diameter (10-200 03BCm) and composition, spherical inclusions and cracks; a high density of low Z deposits were found along and in the proximity of the edges of the cracks. Quantitative microanalyses performed on the cords showed the presence of about 3 wt% of Al2O3 and 2 wt% of ZrO2 originating at the interface between the glass and the refractory materials used to hold the melt, and a Pb content lower than the matrix. A high Pb content was instead found in the spherical inclusions, whereas WEDS showed the presence of C in the deposits. These morphological and microchemical results provide to clarify the mechanisms of defect formation.
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