The purpose of the paper is to identify contradictions in the social and economic field in the process of achieving social justice and economic efficiency. Methodology. Methods of induction and deduction are used to determine the causal relationships; a systematic approach is applied to study research objects; abstract and logical methods of analysis, comparison and generalization allowed us to characterize the existing level of social injustice peculiar to the Ukrainian labour market. The results of the study are identified: manifestations of social injustice in Ukraine related to gender inequality in wages and different employment opportunities, income disparities in various sectors and regions, an increase in the gap between the income of rich and poor people, inconsistency between compensations for adverse working conditions and necessary expenses for labour rehabilitation, legal insecurity in informal, incomplete, and flexible forms of employment. Conclusions are made about their influence on the general situation on the labour market. Practical implications. To eliminate social inequality and injustice, ensure observance of labour rights and privileges, and create high social standards it is recommended to develop youth entrepreneurship programs; to provide free legal and informational support at the stage of opening own businesses and preferential lending and taxation in order to minimize youth unemployment; to develop a social unified agreement binding upon the execution of any work or provision of services to protect all participants in the social dialogue of the flexible and informal labour markets; to develop gender-sensitive personnel policies at all enterprises and organizations, to eliminate pay disparities, to develop state programs of promoting gender equality among legislators and senior officials to achieve gender equality; to attract the unemployed and economically inactive population for the growth of the labour potential of the country, which requires providing decent living conditions and remuneration to internally displaced persons, necessary working space for people with disabilities, creating a system of quality social care services for the elderly, sick and children with decent conditions and affordable services to people who receive social benefits in order to release the able-bodied population engaged in caring for relatives. Value/originality. The value of the research is the established facts of violations of human dignity and social injustice on the modern labour market and suggested recommendations for the elimination or minimization of them.