The article highlights the importance of Jewish merchants’ activity in maintaining and expanding trade relations between the Russian Empire and the Principality of Moldova at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Many of the Jews involved in the Moldavian-Russian economic relations constituted a separate privileged category in the socio-economic life of Moldavian towns. The predominance of Jews in the domestic market of Moldova was due to the fact that under the imperial decree of 1804 the Jews were granted the right to live in 15 provinces of western Russia. They held in their hands the most important branches of trade: grain, alcohol, salt etc. Despite the negative aspects of the Jewish merchants’ activities, which hampered the development of the Romanian national commercial bourgeoisie, it is undeniable that it had a positive impact on the development of local production. Through their business activities, Jewish merchants played an important role in trade relations between the Moldovan principality and the Russian Empire. Although some of the representatives of this ethnic group were involved in smuggling and other illegal activities, the Jews contributed to the introduction of joint stock companies, especially insurance companies, and contributed greatly to the spread of securities. Due to their methods of making a profit, they unwittingly helped to modernize the forms of production and trade. And it is precisely the Jews spread in the Romanian environment the practice of lending money at interest and guarantees.