Ontologies are now increasingly used to integrate, and organize data and knowledge, particularly in data and knowledge-intensive applications in both research and industry. The book is devoted to semantic data mining – a data mining approach where domain ontologies are used as background knowledge, and where the new challenge is to mine knowledge encoded in domain ontologies and knowledge graphs, rather than only purely empirical data. The introductory chapters of the book provide theoretical foundations of both data mining and ontology representation. Taking a unified perspective, the book then covers several methods for semantic data mining, addressing tasks such as pattern mining, classification and similarity-based approaches. It attempts to provide state-of-the-art answers to specific challenges and peculiarities of data mining with use of ontologies, in particular: How to deal with incompleteness of knowledge and the so-called Open World Assumption? What is a truly “semantic” similarity measure? The book contains several chapters with examples of applications of semantic data mining. The examples start from a scenario with moderate use of lightweight ontologies for knowledge graph enrichment and end with a full-fledged scenario of an intelligent knowledge discovery assistant using complex domain ontologies for meta-mining, i.e., an ontology-based meta-learning approach to full data mining processes. The book is intended for researchers in the fields of semantic technologies, knowledge engineering, data science, and data mining, and developers of knowledge-based systems and applications.